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What does the following represent: $\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-x^2} \,dx = \sqrt{\pi}$ | This is the Gaussian integral, and it states that the integral of the function $e^{-x^2}$ from negative infinity to positive infinity is equal to the square root of pi. This integral has many important applications in mathematics and physics, including probability theory and quantum mechanics. |

What does the following represent: $\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-x^2} \,dx = \sqrt{\pi}$ | The expression $\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-x^2} \,dx = \sqrt{\pi}$ represents the integral of the Gaussian function $e^{-x^2}$ over the entire real line. The result of this integral, $\sqrt{\pi}$, emerges from a deep connection between the exponential function and the geometry of the real number line, specifically related to the normal distribution in statistics. This integral is vitally important in probability theory, statistics, and various fields of physics and engineering. Here's how this result can be understood and derived: ## Understanding $e^{-x^2}$The function $e^{-x^2}$ rapidly approaches zero as $x$ moves away from zero (either positively or negatively), more quickly than any power of $1/x$. It's a bell-shaped curve, symmetrical about the y-axis, known as the Gaussian function or bell curve. ## The value of $\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-x^2} \,dx = \sqrt{\pi}$This integral, which evaluates the entire area under the Gaussian curve, is famously computed using a clever double integration technique involving polar coordinates: -
**Square the Integral:**Consider $I = \int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-x^2} \,dx$. If we square this integral, we obtain: [ I^2 = \left(\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-x^2} ,dx \right) \left(\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-y^2} ,dy \right) = \int_{-\infty}^\infty \int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-x^2}e^{-y^2} ,dy,dx. ] We can factorize the exponent in the integrand: [ I^2 = \int_{-\infty}^\infty \int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-(x^2 + y^2)} ,dx,dy. ] -
**Change to Polar Coordinates:**By converting the Cartesian coordinates $(x, y)$ to polar coordinates $(r, \theta)$, where $x = r\cos\theta$ and $y = r\sin\theta$, the expression $x^2 + y^2 = r^2$ simplifies the double integral, which becomes: [ I^2 = \int_0^{2\pi} \int_0^\infty e^{-r^2} r ,dr,d\theta. ] Through a substitution of $u = r^2$, $du = 2r \,dr$, this turns into: [ I^2 = \int_0^{2\pi} \int_0^\infty e^{-u} \frac{1}{2} ,du,d\theta = \frac{1}{2}\int_0^{2\pi} ,d\theta = \pi, ] where the inner integral solves to $1/2$ as integrating $e^{-u}$ from 0 to $\infty$ yields 1. -
**Final Computation:**Thus, $I^2 = \pi$, and taking the square root on both sides gives $I = \sqrt{\pi}$.
This computation not only has theoretical importance but also applications in fields where normal distributions or related notions of smoothing and decay are utilized. |

What does the following represent: $\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-x^2} \,dx = \sqrt{\pi}$ | The expression $\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-x^2} \,dx = \sqrt{\pi}$ represents the definite integral of the Gaussian or normal distribution function over the entire real line, which is a fundamental result in mathematics and probability theory. Here's what the expression means: -
$\int_{-\infty}^\infty$ indicates that the integral is taken over the entire real line, from negative infinity to positive infinity. -
$e^{-x^2}$ is the Gaussian or normal distribution function, which is a fundamental probability density function in probability and statistics. This function has the shape of a bell-shaped curve, and it decays rapidly as $|x|$ increases. -
$\,dx$ is the differential element, indicating that the integral is taken with respect to the variable $x$. -
The result of this integral is $\sqrt{\pi}$, which is a constant with an approximate value of 1.7724538509055160272981674833411.
This result is important in many areas of mathematics and physics, as the Gaussian function and its integral appear in various contexts, such as: - Probability theory: The Gaussian distribution is a widely used probability distribution for modeling many natural and experimental phenomena.
- Quantum mechanics: The Gaussian function appears in the solutions to the Schrödinger equation for various quantum systems.
- Fourier analysis: The Gaussian function is the fundamental solution to the heat equation and is closely related to the Fourier transform.
- Signal processing: The Gaussian function is used to design filters and windows for signal processing applications.
The fact that the integral of the Gaussian function over the entire real line is equal to $\sqrt{\pi}$ is a fundamental result that has many important applications in various fields of science and mathematics. |

What does the following represent: $\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-x^2} \,dx = \sqrt{\pi}$ | The expression $\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-x^2} \,dx = \sqrt{\pi}$ represents the integral of the Gaussian or normal distribution function over the entire real line, from negative infinity to positive infinity. This integral is known as the "Gaussian integral" or the "bell curve integral," and it arises in various fields, including probability theory, statistical mechanics, and quantum mechanics. The integrand $e^{-x^2}$ is the Gaussian function, which is a bell-shaped curve that is symmetric about the y-axis and has a maximum value of 1 at x = 0. The integral calculates the total area under this curve from negative infinity to positive infinity. The result of this integral is $\sqrt{\pi}$, which is approximately equal to 1.772453851. This value has significant importance in various areas of mathematics and physics. In probability theory, the Gaussian integral represents the total probability density over the entire real line for a normal distribution with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. This integral is often used to calculate probabilities and statistical properties of normally distributed random variables. In physics, the Gaussian integral appears in various contexts, such as the partition function in statistical mechanics and the wave functions in quantum mechanics. The evaluation of this integral involves advanced techniques from calculus, such as the use of substitutions, symmetry properties, and special functions like the gamma function or error functions. |

What does the following represent: $\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-x^2} \,dx = \sqrt{\pi}$ | The given integral expression, $\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-x^2} \,dx = \sqrt{\pi}$, is a famous definite integral known as the Gaussian integral or the Euler-Poisson integral. It represents the area under the curve of the function $e^{-x^2}$ over the entire real line, from negative infinity to positive infinity. Here are some key points about this integral: -
The function $e^{-x^2}$ is an even function, meaning that it is symmetric about the y-axis. This symmetry is crucial in evaluating the integral. -
The function $e^{-x^2}$ is a non-negative function, as the exponential function is always positive, and squaring x ensures that the exponent is always non-positive. -
The function $e^{-x^2}$ approaches 0 as x approaches either positive or negative infinity, ensuring that the improper integral converges. -
The Gaussian integral is a key component in probability theory and statistics, as it is closely related to the normal distribution (also known as the Gaussian distribution). The probability density function (PDF) of the standard normal distribution is given by: $f(x) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi}} e^{-\frac{x^2}{2}}$ The constant factor $\frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi}}$ ensures that the total area under the PDF curve is equal to 1, which is a requirement for any valid probability distribution. -
The Gaussian integral can be evaluated using various techniques, such as double integration with polar coordinates, or by using the Gamma function.
In summary, the expression $\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-x^2} \,dx = \sqrt{\pi}$ represents the area under the curve of $e^{-x^2}$ over the entire real line, and it is a fundamental result in mathematics with significant applications in probability theory and statistics. |

What does the following represent: $\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-x^2} \,dx = \sqrt{\pi}$ | A classic! The integral you mentioned is known as the Gaussian integral, and it's a fundamental result in mathematics and statistics. Here's what it represents:
- Probability theory: normal distribution, stochastic processes
- Statistics: hypothesis testing, confidence intervals
- Analysis: harmonic analysis, Fourier transform
- Physics: quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics
The Gaussian integral is a fundamental result that has far-reaching implications in many fields. |

What does the following represent: $\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-x^2} \,dx = \sqrt{\pi}$ | The expression $\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-x^2} \,dx = \sqrt{\pi}$ represents a famous integral in mathematics, known as the Gaussian integral or the probability integral. Here's what each part of the equation means: -
$\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-x^2} \,dx$: This is the definite integral of the function $f(x) = e^{-x^2}$ over the entire real number line, from negative infinity to positive infinity. The function $e^{-x^2}$ is known as the Gaussian function or the normal distribution, and it has a characteristic bell-shaped curve. The integral is used to find the area under this curve. -
$= \sqrt{\pi}$: This equation states that when you integrate the Gaussian function over the entire real line, the result is the square root of pi (approximately 1.77245). This constant value of $\sqrt{\pi}$ is a fundamental result in calculus and has applications in various fields, including probability theory, statistics, physics, and engineering.
In probability theory, this integral is significant because it is the integral of the probability density function of a standard normal distribution, which is widely used to model random variables in many natural and social phenomena. The value of $\sqrt{\pi}$ represents the total area under the Gaussian curve, indicating that the probability of a random variable following a standard normal distribution taking on any value between negative infinity and positive infinity is exactly $\sqrt{\pi}$. In summary, the equation $\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-x^2} \,dx = \sqrt{\pi}$ represents the calculation of the area under the Gaussian curve, and the result is a fundamental constant with important applications in mathematics and its related fields. |

What does the following represent: $\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-x^2} \,dx = \sqrt{\pi}$ | This represents the Gaussian integral, which states that the integral of the function $e^{-x^2}$ over the entire real line from negative infinity to positive infinity is equal to the square root of pi. This integral is widely used in statistics and probability theory. |

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- Input ID
- aa5285be-7ecc-408b-a74a-822a3c2db5ac
- Created
- April 23, 2024
- Permission
- Public
- Expected Answer
- the Gaussian integral